Agility – “a rapid whole body change in direction or speed in response to a stimulus” (Sheppard, Young, Doyle, Sheppard & Newton, 2006)
Anticipation – the expectation of a stimulus prior to the stimulus.
Anticipatory skill – The cognitive and perceptual skill to anticipate stimuli that have not appeared (Cox, 2012).
Attentional control theory – An extension of processing efficiency theory that further posits that performance decrement in the presence of mental pressure is due to an imbalance between a goal directed information processing system and the stimulus-driven system (Cox, 2012).
Attention control training– The process of teaching athletes how to narrow and widen their attentional focus and to control their thoughts (Cox, 2012).
Attentional flexibility– The ability of athletes to shift their attention quickly and effectively from one location to another (Cox, 2012).
Attentional focus– In sports, an athlete’s ability to focus on relevant information during competition (Cox, 2012).
Attentional narrowing- The narrowing of an athlete’s attentional focus due to an increase in arousal (Cox, 2012).
Attentional threshold model– Distractions from worry and self-focus do not individually cause a performance decrement, but together they exceed a threshold of attentional capacity (Cox, 2012).
Attention – in human performance, characteristics associated with consciousness, awareness, and cognitive effort as they relate to the performance of skills with reference to the limitations associated either these characteristics on the simultaneous performance of multiple skills and the detection of relevant information in the performance environment.
Arousal– The general state of excitability of a person, involving physiological, emotional, and mental systems
Kahneman’s Attention Theory– an example of a central resource theory. (Kahneman, 1973)
Central Resource Theory– attention capacity theories that proposes on central source of attention resources for which all activities requiring attention compete.
Centering – The processes whereby an athlete’s attention is brought to focus on an important task oriented suggestion (Cox, 2012).
Centering breath– A technique that involves a deep breath, beginning at the diaphragm, followed by strong but not forceful exhalation and muscle relaxation (Cox, 2012).
Change-of-direction speed (CODS) – “Ability to change initial direction to a predetermined location and space on the field or court” (Nimphius, 2014).
Closed loop skills – Pre-programmed, predictable movements in a stable environment (Ives, 2014)
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) the predictable way the body responds to stress as described by Hans Selye (1907-1982).
Perceptual skill – “Ability of an athlete to interpret and react to a stimulus, such as an opponent, and be able to make at least one change-of-direction.” (Farrow, Young, & Bruce, 2005)
Pro Agility (5-10-5) Test – The test “starts with the athlete in a crouched position, in between two cones which are 10-yards apart. From the crouched position, the athlete explodes to the right and touches the line with his right hand, he explodes out of this cut and sprints 10 yards, touching the line with his left hand, and then explodes back through the middle cone. After a short break the test is the repeated, but starts by going to the left first.” (Robertson, 2014)
Reaction time – “the amount of time to prepare a movement” (Vickers, 2007)
Reactive agility – “The term planned agility denotes the fact that participants are aware of the exact movement pattern required before the start of a test. This allows the distinction with a more recent definition of agility as a whole-body movement with a change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus. This latter definition has been termed reactive agility, reflecting the requirement for participants to change direction in response to a given stimulus mid-test.” (Oliver & Meyers, 2009)
Reactive Agility Test (RAT) Time – Calculated from the moment the athlete broke the first beam to the time when the athlete correctly decided which gate, left or right, to run through. The computer recorded the trial number, direction of sprint (left or right) and the athletes’ 2-yard and 7-yard time.
Response time (RT) – Response time included anticipation, reaction time and movement time, all of which could be affected by fatigue. The athlete’s response time was calculated using the RAT time and subtracting the CODS baseline value.
Speed – “Capacity to travel or move quickly from one point to another” (Pincivero & Bompa, 1997)
Three-cone drill – “Is a test performed by American football athletes at the NFL combine. It is primarily run to evaluate the agility, quickness and fluidity of movement of players by scouts, particularly for the NFL draft but also for collegiate recruiting. While not as highly regarded a test as the 40-yard dash, it is still an important barometer used by NFL personnel to compare players. Three cones are placed five yards apart from each other forming a right angle. The athlete starts with one hand down on the ground and runs to the middle cone and touches it. The athlete then reverses direction back to the starting cone and touches it. The athlete reverses direction again but this time runs around the outside of the middle cone on the way to the far cone running around it in figure eight fashion on his way back around the outside of the middle cone and finally finishing back at the starting cone. Athletes are timed for this whole procedure.” (Wikipedia, 2015)
Visual scanning – “Ability to process visual information in a competitive game.” (Young, James, & Montgomery, 2002)
Qualitative Data – Direct quotations capturing people’s perspectives and experiences. They capture and communicate someone else’s experience of the world in his or her own words (Patton, 2002).
Triangulation – Strategies for reducing systematic bias and distortion during data analysis (Patton, 2002).
Phenomenological Analysis – Seeks to grasp and reveal the meaning, structure, and essence of the lived experience of a phenomenon for a person or a group of people (Patton, 2002).