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The two main areas of research included here are strength and conditioning and sport psychology. Both areas drastically affect the overall goals of human performance with a specific concentration in sport performance. Many of these references are restricted to professional and academic databases. This list is intended to offer readers an opportunity to understand the breadth of evidence based research in the area of sport performance.                                                                                                                                                                                        


Baechle, T. R. (2008). Essentials of strength and conditioning.3rd Edition.

Verkhoshansky, Y., & Siff, M. C. (2009). Supertraining.

Landow, L. (2016). Ultimate conditioning for martial arts. Human Kinetics.

Cronin JB, McNair PJ, and Marshall RN. Force-velocity analysis of strength-training techniques and load: implications for training strategy and research. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research  17: 148-155, 2003. (PDF)

González-Badillo JJ and Sánchez-Medina L. Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. International journal of sports medicine 31: 347-352, 2010 (PDF)

Jidovtseff B, Croisier JL, Lhermerout C, Serre L, Sac D, and Crielaard JM. The concept of iso-inertial assessment: Reproducibility analysis and descriptive data. Isokinetics & Exercise Science 14: 53-62, 2006. (PDF)

Cronin JB, McNair PJ, and Marshall RN. Force-velocity analysis of strength-training techniques and load: implications for training strategy and research. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research17: 148-155, 2003.

Cronin, J., & Sleivert, G. (2005). Challenges in understanding the influence of maximal power training on improving athletic performance. Sports Medicine-ADIS International, 35(3), 213-234.

Cronin, J. B., Hing, R. D., & Mcnair, P. J. (2004). Reliability and validity of a linear position transducer for measuring jump performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(3), 590-593.

González-Badillo JJ and Sánchez-Medina L. Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. International Journal of Sports Medicine 31: 347-352, 2010.

González-Badillo, J., Marques, M., & Sánchez-Medina, L. (2011). The importance of movement velocity as a measure to control resistance training intensity. Journal of Human Kinetics, 29(Special Issue), 15-19.

Jandačka, D., & Beremlijski, P. (2011). Determination of strength exercise intensities based on the load-power-velocity relationship. Journal of Human Kinetics, 28, 33-44.

Randell, A. D., Cronin, J. B., Keogh, J. W., Gill, N. D., & Pedersen, M. C. (2011). Effect of instantaneous performance feedback during 6 weeks of velocity-based resistance training on sport-specific performance tests. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(1), 87-93.

Sanchez-Medina, L., & González-Badillo, J. J. (2011). Velocity loss as an indicator of neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43(9), 1725-1734.

James, L. P., Kelly, V. G., & Beckman, E. M. (2013). Periodization for mixed martial artsStrength & Conditioning Journal35(6), 34-45. (PDF)

Jones, N. B., & Ledford, E. (2012). Strength and conditioning for Brazilian jiu-jitsuStrength & Conditioning Journal34(2), 60-69.

Bodden, J. G., Needham, R. A., & Chockalingam, N. (2015). The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletesThe Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research29(1), 219-225.(PDF)

Lenetsky, S., & Harris, N. (2012). The mixed martial arts athlete: a physiological profile. Strength & Conditioning Journal34(1), 32-47.(PDF)

Costa, P. B., Medeiros, H. B., & Fukuda, D. H. (2011). Warm-up, stretching, and cool-down strategies for combat sports. Strength & Conditioning Journal33(6), 71-79.(PDF)

Mikeska, J. D. (2014). A 12-week metabolic conditioning program for a mixed martial artistStrength & Conditioning Journal36(5), 61-67.

James, L. P. (2014). An evidenced-based training plan for Brazilian jiu-jitsuStrength & Conditioning Journal36(4), 14-22.

Tack, C. (2013). Evidence-based guidelines for strength and conditioning in mixed martial artsStrength & Conditioning Journal35(5), 79-92.

Amtmann, J. A., Amtmann, K. A., & Spath, W. K. (2008). Lactate and rate of perceived exertion responses of athletes training for and competing in a mixed martial arts event. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research22(2), 645-647. (PDF)

Andreato, L. V., de Moraes, S. F., de Moraes Gomes, T. L., Esteves, J. D. C., Andreato, T. V., & Franchini, E. (2011). Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletesScience & Sports26(6), 329-337. (PDF)

Andreato, L. V., Julio, U. F., Panissa, V. L. G., Esteves, J. V. D. C., Hardt, F., de Moraes, S. M. F., … & Franchini, E. (2015). Brazilian jiu-jitsu simulated competition part II: physical performance, time-motion, technical-tactical analyses, and perceptual responsesThe Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research29(7)

Andreato, L. V., Franzói-de-Moraes, S. M., Esteves, J. V. D. C., Miranda, M. L., Pastório, J. J., Pastório, E. J., … & Franchini, E. (2014). Psychological, physiological, performance and perceptive responses to Brazilian jiu-jitsu combats. Kinesiology46(1), 44-52. (PDF)

Andreato, L. V., Julio, U. F., Panissa, V. L., Esteves, J. V., Hardt, F., de Moraes, S. M., … & Franchini, E. (2015). Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu simulated competition part I: metabolic, hormonal, cellular damage, and heart rate responses. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research29(9), 2538-2549. (PDF)

Spencer, D. C. (2016). From many masters to many Students: YouTube, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, and communities of practice. Jomec Journal, (5). (PDF)

Brandão, F., Fernandes, H. M., Alves, J. V., Fonseca, S., & Reis, V. M. (2014). Hematological and biochemical markers after a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu tournament in world-class athletes. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano16(2), 144-151. (PDF)

Santos, W. O. C., Brito, C. J., Júnior, E. A. P., Valido, C. N., Mendes, E. L., Nunes, M. A. P., & Franchini, E. (2012). Cryotherapy post-training reduces muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters. (PDF)

Scoggin III, J. F., Brusovanik, G., Izuka, B. H., Zandee van Rilland, E., Geling, O., & Tokumura, S. (2014). Assessment of injuries during Brazilian jiu-jitsu competition. Orthopedic journal of sports medicine2(2), 2325967114522184. (PDF)




Weinburg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2007). Foundations of Sport & Exercise Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Sage, G. (1977). Introduction to motor behavior: A neuropsychological approach (2nd. ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Patton, M. Q. (1987). How to use qualitative methods in evaluation. Newbury park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

R. Singer, H. Hausenblas, & C. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 740-765). New York: Wiley.

Dintiman, G. B., & Ward, R. D. (2009). Encyclopedia of Sports Speed: Improving Playing Speed for Sports Competition. National Association of Speed and Explosion.

Anshel, M. H., & Payne, J. M. (2006). Sport Psychology for Martial Arts. In J. Dosil (ed.), The Sport Psychologist’s Handbook (pp. 333-374).

Hardy, J., Jones, G., & Gould, D. (1996). Understanding psychological preparation for sport. Chicester, UK: John Wiley.

Bull, S. J., Albinson, J. G., & Shambrook, C. J. (1996). The Mental Game Plan: Getting Psyched for Sport. Eastbourne, England: Sport Dynamics.

Robazza, C., Bortolli, L., & Hanin, Y. (2004). Precompetition emotions, bodily symptoms, and task-specific qualities as predictors of performance in high-level karate athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 16(2), 151-165.

John Wiley and Sons. Eklund, R. C., Gould, D, & Jackson, S. A. (1993). Psychological foundations of Olympic wrestling excellence reconciling individual differences and nomothetic characterization. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 5(1), 35-47.

Gernigon, C., & Le Bars, H. (2000). Achievement goals in aikido and judo: A comparative study among beginner and experienced practitioners. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12(2), 168-179.

Gould, D., Horn, T., & Spreeman, J. (1983). Competitive anxiety in junior elite wrestlers.Journal of Sport Psychology, 5(1), 58-71.

Gould, D., Horn, T., & Spreeman, J. (1983). Sources of strss in junior elite wrestlersJournal of Sport Psychology. 5(2), 159-171.

Gould, D., Weiss, M., & Weinburg, R. (1981). Psychological characteristics of successful and non successful big ten wrestlers. Journal of Sport Psychology. 3(1), 69-81.

Heyman, S. R. (1990). Ethical issues in performance enhancement approaches with amateur boxers. The Sport Psychologist. 4(1), 48-54.

Jackson, Susan (1995). Factors influencing the occurrence of flow states in elite athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 7(2), 138-166.

Reiter, H., & Deprospo, L. (2003). Neuropsychological aspects of boxing. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 34(4), 340-343.

Anshel, M. H., & Payne, J. M. (2006). Sport Psychology for Martial Arts. In J. Dosi (ed.), The Sport Psychologist’s Handbook (pp. 333-374).

Bull, S. J., Shambrook, C. J., James, W., & Brooks, J. E. (2005). Towards an understanding of mental toughness in elite English cricketers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17, 209-227.

Chung, K. H., & Lee, K. M. (1994). Taekwondo Kyorugi: Olympic Style Sparring. Hartford, CT: Turtle Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.

Dunn, A. L., & Dishman, R. K. (2005). Anxiety and performance on the tour de France and tour de France feminin. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 3(4), 410-427.

Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J. H. (2002). The development and maintenance of expert athletic performance: Perceptions of world and Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 154-171

Goudas, M., Hatzidimitrou, V., & Kikidi, M. (2006). The effects of self-talk on throwing and jumping events performance. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 3(2), 105-116.

Gould, D. (2001). Goal setting for peak performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (4th ed., pp. 190-205). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffett, A. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in olympic champions, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(3), 172-204.

Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1993). Anxiety. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphy, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp. 328-364). New York: Macmillan.

Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Emotions in sport. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics.

Hanson, D., & Newburg, D. (1992). Naturalistic inquiry as a paradigm for doing applied performance enhancement research. Contemporary Thought on Performance Enhancement, 1, 26-40.

Harrison, D., & Robinson, W. (1986). The effect of skill level on EMG activity during internal and external imagery. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8(2), 105-111.

Hays, K., Maynard, I., Thomas, O., & Bawden, M. (2007). Sources and types of confidence identified by world class sport performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(4), 434-456.

Hodge, K., Allen, J. B., Smellie, L, (2008). Motivation in masters sport: Achievement and social goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(2), 157-176.

Hill, K. L. (2001). Frameworks for sport psychologists. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Jones, G., Hanton, S., & Connaughton, D. (2002). What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performer. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 205-218.

Kimura, H., Nagao, F., Tanaka, Y., Sakai, S., Ohnishi, T., & Okumura, K. (2005).Beneficial effects of the Nishino breathing method on immune activity and stress level. Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, 11(2), 285-291.

Landin, D., & Herbert, E. P. (1999). The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 263-282.

Martens, R. (1976). Competitiveness in sports. In F. Landry & W. A. R. Orban (eds), Physical Activity and Human Well- being (pp. 323-342). Miami, FL: Symposia Specialists.

McAuley, E. (1985). Modeling and self-efficacy: A test of Bandura’s model. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 283-295.

McGarry, T., & Franks, I. M. (1995). Modeling competitive squash performance from quantitative analysis. Human Performance, 8(2), 113-129.

Reynierse, J. (1971). Submissive postures during shock-elicited aggression. Animal Behaviour, 19(1), 102-107.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). Self-determination theory and facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Sackett, R. S. (1934). The influences of symbolic rehearsal upon retention of a maze habit. Journal of General Psychology, 13, 113-128.

Seabourne, T., Weinburg, R., & Jackson, A. (1984). Effect of individualized practice and training of visuo-motor behavior rehearsal in enhancing karate performance. Journal of Sport Behavior, 7(2), 58-67.

Thelwell, R., Weston, N., & Greenlees, I. (2005). Defining and understanding mental toughness within soccer. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17(4), 326-332.

Thomas, O., Maynard, I., & Hanton, S. (2007). Intervening with athletes during the time leading up to competition: Theory in practice II. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(4), 398-418.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2004) How to become a persevering exerciser? Providing a clear, future intrinsic goal in an autonomy- supportive way. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 232-249.

Verona, E., & Kilmer, A. (2007). Stress exposure and affective modulation of aggressive behavior in men and women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(2), 410-421.




Cooke, K., Quinn, A., & Sibte, N. (2011). Testing speed and agility in elite tennis playersStrength & Conditioning Journal33(4), 69-72.

Farrow, D., Young, W., & Bruce, L. (2005). The development of a test of reactive agility for netball: a new methodology. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 8 (1), 40-48.

Gabbett, T. J., Kelly, J. N., & Sheppard, J. M. (2008). Speed, Change of Direction Speed, and Reactive Agility of Rugby League Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22 (1), 174-181.

Huttermann, S., & Memmert, D. (2014). Does the inverted-U function disappear in expert athletes? An analysis of the attentional behavior under physical exercise of athletes and non-athletes. Physiology & Behavior, 131, 87-92.

McNevin, N. H., Shea, C. H., & Wulf, G. (2003). Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances learning. Psychological Research, 67, 22-29.

McNevin, N. H., Wulf, G., & Carlson, C. (2000). Effects of attentional focus, self-control, and dyad training effects on motor learning: Implications for physical rehabilitation. Physical Therapy, 80, 373-385.

Oliver, J. L., & Meyers, R. W. (2009). Reliability and Generality of Measures of Acceleration, Planned Agility, and Reactive Agility. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4, 345-354.

Perkins-Ceccato, N., Passmore, S. R., & Lee, T. D. (2003). Effects of focus of attention depend on golfers’ skill. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 593-600.

Porter, J. M., Nolan, R. P., Ostrowski, E. J., & Wulf, G. (2010) Directing attention externally enhances agility performance: a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the efficacy of using verbal instructions to focus on attention. Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 1-7.

Porter, J. M., Ostrowski, E. J., Nolan, R. P., & Wu, F. W. (2010). Standing long-jump performance is enhanced when using an external focus of attention. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24, 1746-1750.

Sayers, A., Sayers, B. E., Binkley, H. (2008). Preseason fitness testing in national collegiate athletic association. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 30, 70-75.

Sheppard, J., Young, W., Doyle, T., Sheppard, T., & Newton, R. (2006). An evaluation of a new test of reactive agility and its relationship to sprint speed and change of direction speed. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9, 342-349.

Sheppard, J. M., & Young, W. B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testingJournal of sports sciences24(9), 919-932.

Shea, C. H., & Wulf, G. (1999). Enhancing motor learning through external-focus instructions and feedback. Human Movement Science, 18, 553-571.

Singer, R. N., Lidor, R., & Cauraugh, J. H. (1993). To be aware or not aware? What to think about when learning and performing a motor skill. Sport Psychology, 7, 19-30.

Wulf, G. (2007). “Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 10 years of research,” in Gabriel Wulf on Attentional Focus and Motor Learning [Target article], eds E.J. Hossner and N. Wenderoth. E. Journal Bewegungund Training 1, 4-14. Available at http://www.eournal-but.de

Wulf, G. (2008). Attentional Focus in Balance Acrobats. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79, 319-325.

Wulf, G., McConnel, N., Gartner, M., and Schwarz, A. (2002). Enhancing the learning of sports skills through external focus feedback. Journal of Motor Behavior, 34, 171-182.

Young, W. B., & Willey, B. (2009). Analysis of a reactive agility field test. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 376-378.

Young, W. B., Dawson, B., & Henry, G. J. (2015). Agility and Change-of-Direction Speed Are Independent Skills: Implications for Training for Agility in Invasion Sports. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10 (1), 159-169.

Young, W. B., McDowell, M. H., & Scarlett, B. J. (2001). Specificity of Sprint and Agility Training Methods. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15 (3), 315- 319.

Young, W., James, R., & Montgomery, I. (2002). Is muscle power related to running speed with changes of direction. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical πFitness, 42 (3), 282-288.

Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J., & Bezodis, N. (2005). Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain Research Bulletin, 67, 304-309.